Black Sunday (Italian: La maschera del demonio), also known as The Mask of Satan and Revenge of the Vampire in the UK, is a 1960 Italian gothic horror film directed by Mario Bava from a screenplay by Ennio de Concini and Mario Serandrei (with uncredited contributions by Bava, Marcello Coscia and Dino Di Palma), and starring Barbara Steele, John Richardson, Arturo Dominici and Ivo Garrani. It was Bava's official directorial debut, although he had completed several previous feature films without receiving an onscreen credit. Based very loosely on Nikolai Gogol's short story "Viy", the narrative concerns a witch who is put to death by her own brother, only to return 200 years later to seek revenge on her descendants.
By the social standards of the 1960s, Black Sunday was considered unusually gruesome, and was banned in the UK until 1968 because of its violence. In the US, some of the gore was censored in-house by distributor American International Pictures before its theatrical release to the country's cinemas, where it was shown as a double feature with Roger Corman's The Little Shop of Horrors. Black Sunday was a worldwide critical and box office success, and launched the careers of Bava and Steele. In 2004, one of its sequences was voted number 40 among the "100 Scariest Movie Moments" by the Bravo TV network.